Fotogaleria e The Atlantic: Bunkerët e Shqipërisë që nuk shërbyen për asgjë

Revista amerikane The Atlantic, me anë të një seriali fotografik, ka risjellë për lexuesit panoramën tragjike të paranojës së diktatorit shqiptar Enver Hoxha: bunkerët, si pjesën më të dukshme të saj. Procei i bunkerizimit nisi në vitin 1968, shkruan revista dhe përgjatë 20 viteve rreth 175 mijë bunkerë të përforcuar betoni u ndërtuan në të gjithë vendin; me anë përpjekjesh dhe shpenzimesh të mëdha.

Megjthatë, këta bunkerë nuk u përdorën kurrë për qëllimin për të cilin u ndërtuan: ata nuk u bënë kurrë strehë e popullatës nga një sulm sovjetik apo një pushtim nga fqinjët, ata panë një përdorim të kufizuar gjatë luftës së Kosovës dhe Luftës Civile shqiptare në vitet ’90.

Gjatë viteve të fundit një pjesë e këtyre struktuarave të papërdorura janë shndërruar në hostele, shtëpi apo muezume. Shumë prej tyre janë shkulur, por shumica vazhdojnë të ‘kalben’ aty ku janë ngulur.

 

Photographs illustrating the political persecution of some 100,000 Albanians from 1945 until 1991 during the former communist regime cover the walls of a bunker at a new museum in the capital, Tirana, Saturday, Nov. 19, 2016. The former top-secret nuclear bunker has been reopened as a museum in Albania’s capital to show visitors how Communist-era police persecuted the regime’s opponents. (AP Photo/Hektor Pustina)

An Albanian walks near an artillery bunker encircled by barbed wire on the Adriatic Sea shore near Tale, in Albania’s northern Lezhe region some 70 km (44 miles) from capital Tirana September 21, 2012. One of the four bunkers was transformed into a hostel for backpackers as part of a project by German and Albanian architecture students. REUTERS/Arben Celi 
People stand outside a communist-era heavy artillery bunker fitted as a hostel, on the Adriatic Sea shore near Tale, in Albania’s northern Lezhe region some 70 km (44 miles) from capital Tirana September 21, 2012. The bunker was transformed into a hostel for backpackers as part of a project by German and Albanian architecture students. REUTERS/Arben Celi (ALBANIA 
An Albanian girl plays at Seman beach near the city of Fier, some 150 km (93 miles) south of the capital Tirana, July 15, 2009. The army has started to clean beaches from concrete bunkers built during Albania’s self-imposed isolation period under the communist regime. Late dictator Enver Hoxha built thousands of pillbox bunkers across the Adriatic and Ionian Sea coastlines to protect the country from an invasion that never came. Picture was taken on July 15, 2009. REUTERS/Arben Celi  
An abandoned bunker in the middle of the countryside

An Albanian tank passes a bunker positioned near the border with Yugoslavia during army exercises near the northern Albanian village of Morina May 26. British General Sir John Reith said on Wednesday, that Serbs were strengthening their positions around the main crossing point for refugees at Morina, which has come under sporadic gunfire.   
An Albanian farmer walks his livestock past abandoned military bunkers on his farm outside of Kukes, Albania Tuesday, May 18, 1999. As many as 750,000 cement bunkers dot the country of Albania, built by its former dictator Enver Hoxha in the 1960s when he turned his back on the world and braced for a foreign invasion that never came. Now the bunkers are being used by Albanian military as they eye the Kosovo border, by children as playgrounds, by farmers as barns, and with the exodus of Kosovar refugees as shelter and toilets in the overcrowded camps. (AP Photo/David Guttenfelder)

A man fishes from atop a bunker at a lagoon in Patok near Tirana November 23, 2009. The waters have eroded part of the beach that several years ago used to stretch for at least one hundred meters below the building in the background, a former hotel which is now abandoned. REUTERS/Arben Celi 

In Albania, many Communist-era bunkers populate the landscape, relics of the paranoia of former dictator Enver Hoxha. Estimates range from 175,000 to 750,000.
Enver Hoxha, isolationist Stalinist feared attacks both from the Soviet Union and the West.
The bunkers were never used for their intended purpose during the years that Hoxha governed. The cost of constructing them was a heavy drain on Albania’s resources.
In recent years, the army has begun clearing bunkers, especially from the beaches.