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Archive / Interview of Spartak Ngjela of '91: Not to serve the former inquisitors to be re-evaluated as Democrats. What do I think about Berisha.
-This article is part of the new section "PRINT Archive" opened by Politiko.al with materials extracted from the funds of the Periodical and the Book of the National Library. Interview of Spartak Ngjela, given at that time by RD journalist, Filip Çakuli. Gazeta "RD", dt. June 5, 1994, p. 3.
QUESTION: - First we come from RD. Do you read this newspaper and what do you think about it?
ANSWER: - I do not believe that there can be any politician in Albania today who does not read the newspaper "Rilindja Demokratike". I say this because even your question does not seem very serious to me. RD is known to be the newspaper of the ruling party, and to engage in politics and not monitor official opinion is somewhat naive. Well, it seems to me that so far I have given you the answer with the fact I read or do not read RD.
As for my opinion about her, I can tell you that she too can not come out of the defect of all Albanian newspapers, especially the party ones, but RD stands out more for the common defects that the whole press has because it is also position newspaper.
After all, there is opposition in the whole democratic world. Each has its own press, and everywhere, the press of the position with that of the opposition, there are essential differences. We Albanians do not seem to want to accept this, and naturally, this speaks to the fact that we still do not have a democratic experience. I say this because I often see, even my friends for whom I have respect, that when they attack RD, they say that she fanatically defends the official policy, and does not hit the position. If you look at it carefully, this is a requirement that goes beyond the nature of the politics we know, because to this day, politics is always defended by your press. Of course, the conflicts that lie within a party, should definitely be reflected in the press of that party, but even here, as a rule, the parties in power are always somewhat spared, but, if we stick strictly to this fact, no party newspaper has done so so far. So even the RD, can not get out of this stream of experience, but, precisely for this, knowing the fact that it defends official policy, every politician should read it to see the political movements made by the party in power. Ultimately, democracy does not lie in the fact that the current political power criticizes itself or not, but in the other, that this power does not prevent by forcing its opponents to express themselves against it. Well, I think if you look at things this way, you do not have to worry, you are clearer and more balanced in making your policy. knowing the fact that it advocates official politics, every politician should read it to see the political moves made by the party in power. Ultimately, democracy does not lie in the fact that the current political power criticizes itself or not, but in the other, that this power does not prevent by forcing its opponents to express themselves against it. Well, I think if you look at things this way, you do not have to worry, you are clearer and more balanced in making your policy. knowing the fact that it advocates official politics, every politician should read it to see the political moves made by the party in power. Ultimately, democracy does not lie in the fact that the current political power criticizes itself or not, but in the other, that this power does not prevent by forcing its opponents to express themselves against it. Well, I think if you look at things this way, you do not have to worry, you are clearer and more balanced in making your policy.
This is my political opinion about RD and the press in general, and in addition, man is always human, and inside sentiments, there are some things that come out of politics. So, when it comes to RD, I personally have some positive and exciting memories at the same time, which I believe will never be erased, just as I have for ZP, in the negative sense, some bitter and exciting memories at the same time, of which I do not believe will ever be erased from my memory either. However, memories are memories, politics will always remain politics, and the truth is always only one, and I always try to remain a follower of truth, within Aristotle's expression: "I love Plato, but I love truth more."
QUESTION: - How do you view and judge the current democratic processes in Albania? What, in your opinion, is the role of the DP in all this democratic development?
ANSWER: - I think that the current political situation, its analysis, of course, is the analysis that can be done to democratic developments in Albania. From this point of view, of course, the idea emerges that political developments in the democratic sense today should be judged on the struggle between the position and the opposition. Well, this is where every criticism must take its initiative, and after that every analysis. I personally tend to analytical syntheses, and I always want to support criticism in terms of the argument, first, and the alternative idea, then. Therefore, based on this method, I think that today's political developments have entered a new phase.
If you look closely at the two-year period of the post-communist era, you will find that we as a society were conquered by a kind of democratic exaltation. Of course, this phenomenon has its legitimate cause, because objectively there was no way it could have happened otherwise when you consider that we as a society came out democratically liberated after very long oppression. But it is precisely this democratic exaltation that has often caused us to lose our sense of mass and, moreover, has prevented us from logically finding points of reference. With this phenomenon, the first political groups faced PD. It was a giant party, the exact balance of different forces, grouped in the name of freedom and democracy, which emerged in the wake of time to lead the fall of communism, take power, and institutionalize democracy. But immediately after coming to power, the various tendencies which were found within it, caught in the sudden by the exaltation I express above, started the war, and so far there is nothing wrong, but together with the war, they forgot that in the end this war, even for power, should not exceed their common goal. Seeing the situation this way, different forces, with different profiles, thought that by coming out independently they would preserve their independence more. Therefore, today, if you look closely, you see that from the PD, in the spectrum of Albanian politics have emerged three parties, and are getting ready to take legal form and the fourth: Legality, Balli, AD, and PDD. All four have a right-wing profile, and together with the DP, they actually represent over sixty percent of the electorate's tendencies. Opposite them stands the left part of the electoral body, which is represented by the SP.
In this way, it is seen that the vortex of political war today is no longer bipolar, for the fact that the right went towards its fragmentary. Therefore, a little above I expressed the idea that political developments in Albania have entered a new phase, I had in mind exactly this fragmentation; because the current position, namely the DP, is in the middle of a war that is understood to have power at its center. But this is where the idea of what you want to do with this power comes into play. Of course, the new groupings are intertwined within their interests, but in fact, so far, I do not see that one of the new groupings has presented its own alternative. After all, people do not need propaganda, but concrete things. "It will create a million new jobs," Berlusconi said. all unveiling its own program for Italy's economic progress. But to date, we do not see the Albanian opposition presenting exactly this, just as we do not see a clear idea about the institutionalization of democracy. So in short, the opposition, in general, advertises the moral sense in governance, because I see that it does not have a philosophy of its own. This is where the progress of the right-wing idea has stalled because so far, not all right-wing forces have emerged from the philosophical axis that the PD has unfolded since December 1990. because I see that it does not have a philosophy of its own. This is where the progress of the right-wing idea has stalled because so far, not all right-wing forces have emerged from the philosophical axis that the PD has unfolded since December 1990. because I see that it does not have a philosophy of its own. This is where the progress of the right-wing idea has stalled because so far, not all right-wing forces have emerged from the philosophical axis that the PD has unfolded since December 1990.
QUESTION: - You mentioned Berlusconi, but inside this, I want to ask you about what is being advertised as the right front, how do you see this phenomenon?
ANSWER: - Berlusconi's coming to power, although contrary to a dubious opinion about him, which has recently spread across Europe, I see as a positive phenomenon. After fifty years of democratic development, it seems that capitalism is finally triumphing in Italy. Well, that's how I see Berlusconi coming to power - as a triumph of capitalism in Italy. Let's see, though, what happens.
As for the right front, as an idea recently thrown in Albania, I personally do not see any meeting point with Berlusconi's philosophy. In fact, at first, I saw more attention to the idea of creating a right-wing front, but always waiting for motivation. I think that the re-evaluation of caps can not be a real political motive. As I said above, political movements emerge as forces seeking to shape ideas, which, if applied, will lead to progressive social developments. Berlusconi is for total privatization of the Italian economy, the same should happen in Albania.
INTEGRAL CAPITALISM - This is the idea that should wrap the genuine right in Albania. The issue of property can only be resolved within a capitalist spirit, meaning that everyone must be aware that property moves, circulates, sells, buys, and so is put into efficiency. Under a strict capitalist prism, the issue that should concern the Albanian right today is the sale and purchase of land. But I see that everyone is afraid of that. The fear of this phenomenon is the fear of capitalism, because we, first of all, must all take a responsible interest in the triumph of capitalism in the village, as it is known to be a communist stronghold. But the right seems to have forgotten this fact, perhaps driven more by momentary passion than by reason of the future.
QUESTIONS: - According to you, Mr. Ngjela, what should be the difference between the right and the left, in our social developments.
ANSWER: - This issue is seen as a dichotomy of worldviews: philosophical and economic worldviews. In philosophy, the right is divided from the left by the distinction between idealism and metaphysics on the one hand and materialism on the other. There can never be a materialist philosophy, for the fact that philosophy without metaphysics can not exist, and materialism is unacceptable to metaphysics. In economics, on the other hand, the right, which always comes from an idealistic worldview, is divided by the left in its attitude toward social property. The right, then, today is what supports integral capitalism, against statist socialization of property where the left rests, which as a rule comes from a materialist philosophical worldview. This should be the division in Albanian society.
Well, based on these principles, I maintain my opinion that we should expect genuine Albanian rights from the younger generation. We often hear about a democratic revolution, but in the last instance, if we are really facing a structural overthrow in the state, have we made a revolution in mentality?
Here, then, is expected the result of the progressive change of our society, of the revolution in mentality, which we have not yet done, and we will probably need a lot of time to carry out. It is at this point that I find my argument when I say that the right belongs to the younger generation. Each of us should know only one thing: we have a desire for western civilization in our society, but, precisely because of this desire, we must pave the way for the generation of twenty-five to lead this progress, in order for the revolution in mentality takes place.
QUESTION: - In all that you said, where do you find the defects of the DP today?
ANSWER: - I think that the DP today is facing the conflict that often has to happen to man: the desire and the intellectual ability to achieve this desire. So, within this idea, I think that today's PD conflict with reality is the difference I see between the high goal it has set for itself, and the intellectual quality it has at its disposal to achieve that goal. DP overthrew communism, created new structures of the Albanian state, and opened for the first time in history the precedent of Albania's integration into Western civilization, is doing privatization and within this, it has definitely been consumed. At the moment she has to make a leap in quality because only such a leap would supply her with new ideas. Albanian society today needs new syntheses, that political group that will manage to make them, will give its contribution of historical value to what a little above we called integral capitalism and revolution in mentality. Within this, the DP has its historic responsibility to curb the conservative left that is trying to come back to power. I think only the gravity of the new syntheses would be the one that would block the leftist idea of coming back to power. And I think that the DP should be seriously obliged for this because it has all the opportunities to make its qualitative overcoming. I think only the gravity of the new syntheses would be the one that would block the leftist idea of coming back to power. And I think that the DP should be seriously obliged for this because it has all the opportunities to make its qualitative overcoming. I think only the gravity of the new syntheses would be the one that would block the leftist idea of coming back to power. And I think that the DP should be seriously obliged for this because it has all the opportunities to make its qualitative overcoming.
QUESTION: - Often from the opposition press, today's democracy is called "Berisha regime". Can such a definition stand? What is, in your opinion, the role of the president in all this progress that we see happening in Albania, and what is his personality?
ANSWER: - We as a society have had and continue to have shortcomings for democratic concepts. Above all, I note with regret that we Albanians do not have respect for the state, in general, but the most important thing is that we are showing that we do not have respect for the state that we have chosen.
Now everyone knows very well that democracy means power that is obtained through free voting. Well, here, this is the premise from which the reasoning of answering the question you ask should take its initiative. In a word, is today's power legal or illegal? No one can talk about an "illegitimacy" of the current government, because it was won by free votes. Then, with what precedent do you have the right to declare that this is Berisha's regime? The political regime in Tirana belongs to Sali Berisha, as much as the current regime in Washington belongs to Bill Clinton.
Understandably, its legitimate president has the right to attack every citizen in the free press, because that is democracy, but not accepting the competent authority given to him by law, namely the constitution, means that you have no respect either. for your vote nor for the vote of your compatriot, after all, you have no respect for the state itself.
We have suffered for a very long time from the absence of a state, and this should make us think very deeply about our future. President Berisha is the first legitimate Albanian president, in the truest sense of the word, and every politician tomorrow will use his precedents, if he really is a politician. How can you deny the Berisha personality in the fall of communism, how can you deny the Berisha personality in establishing the lost state balances, in a society that for two years was almost completely immersed in anarchy, and finally, how can you deny the opening of of his new precedents in the new Albanian politics internally and externally, after maybe more than sixty years? This is how the current president should be judged, because otherwise, you will definitely become a slave of passion.
The state in essence is very capricious, and therefore politics must always be prudent, serious. The successes and failures of a legitimate president in politics, are the only precedents with which you can operate in order to perfect the state you seek to build.
All these, I think, are not current today in the political struggle we are waging. Who does not know how to distinguish legal authority from illegal arbitrariness, can not deal with politics. And if you ask me then what I think about the personality of President Berisha, after what I said, I can say that politics so far, for the sake of good, has not known how to use his personality and charisma, because as it seems we Albanians suffer from the delusional thought that any of us can be president. However, the position is always position, and opposition always opposition, if both of these attack in their struggle passion and not reason, society would definitely go towards destruction. In this context, the right should always be grateful to those who, with their vigor, wise moves, and civic courage, gave him the opportunity to come to power after fifty years in Albania. To forget this means to have forgotten your suffering, and finally, with this forgetfulness, you will serve your former inquisitor to be re-evaluated as a Democrat. The recent trial of the former top leaders of communism showed us this very clearly.
Let us preserve democracy with reason, with a struggle that tends towards balances, for a right-wing power in Albania, until capitalism finally defeats the socialism that took our breath away for fifty years. The personality of President Berisha will definitely be subject to the judgment of history, because now he has entered our history, but his pristine value will always be the fact - he managed or not to defeat the regressive leftist idea in Albania.